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Combined Sewer Overflow


Representatives of the Rouge Project have developed numerous technical reports concerning the ongoing CSO control program. See also Technical Papers and Professional Presentations on the CSO Control Program. It is important to note that there are a number of reports at other locations on this web site that focus on specific topics that the rouge project addresses. The reader should click on the other sections of the web site to view those reports. To view those reports, click on Wetlands, Watershed Management, Geographic Information Systems/Data Management, Non-point Source Pollution, Illicit Discharges/Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems, Financial and Institutional Arrangements, Modeling and Monitoring, and Combined Sewer Overflows for general information on the program.
  1. Acacia Park CSO Basin
  2. Birmingham CSO Basin
  3. Bloomfield Village CSO Basin
  4. Combined Sewer Overflow Innovative Funding
  5. Criteria for Success, Goal 2 - Protection of Public Health Elimination of Raw Sewage, Evaluation of Oakland County and Wayne County CSO Facilities.
  6. CSO Basin Evaluation Plans - Data Collection and Transfer Guide
  7. CSO Basin Monitoring and Analysis Study Plan Being Finalized
  8. CSO Basins: Getting the Most Performance from Your Pollution Control Dollar
  9. CSO Basins: Technology and Results, September 1999
  10. CSO Demonstration Facilities Design Parameter Report
  11. CSOs: Two Phased Permitting for the Watershed
  12. Dearborn CSO Control Program
  13. Dearborn Heights CSO
  14. Dearborn Heights CSO Basin Evaluation Interim Final Report, March 2000
  15. Detroit's CSO Controls
  16. Evaluation of In-Stream Impacts of CSO Control Facilities
  17. Field Survey of the Total Residual Chlorine (TRC) Plume in the Rouge River from the Hubbell-Southfield CSO Detention Basin Overflow
  18. Hubbell-Southfield CSO
  19. Hubbell-Southfield CSO Detention Basin Evaluation
  20. Implementation of CSO Controls Based on Watershed Approach
  21. Initial CSO Findings Report
  22. Inkster CSO Basin Evaluation Interim Final Report, March 2000
  23. Inkster Retention Basin
  24. Integration of Wayne County CSO Controls in the Rouge River Watershed
  25. Interim CSO Report NPDES Permit No. MI 0026123
  26. Meeting Report for the Rouge River Watershed CSO Technology Demonstration
  27. Monitoring and Modeling of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Impacts from CSO Facility Effluent
  28. Monitoring the Benficial Impacts of CSO Control Implementation (Reno, Nevada)
  29. One Size Does Not Fit All: Stormwater is a Bigger Issue Since Local Communities Have No Regulatory Requirements Through CSO Controls
  30. Operating Experiences with Large CSO Control Facilities
  31. Operators' Forum Report
  32. Percent Treated Analysis of Demonstration Combined Sewer Overflow Control Facilities
  33. Physical Characteristics of Treated Effluent from Oakland and Wayne County Demonstration CSO Facilities
  34. Preliminary Hydrologic Comparison of Demonstration CSO Facilities
  35. Preliminary Value Engineering Report of 30 Percent Design Completion of CSO Basin Demonstration Projects for Inkster, Dearborn Heights and Redford Township
  36. Puritan-Fenkell and Seven Mile CSO Detention Basins Evaluation
  37. Puritan-Fenkell CSO Basin
  38. Redford CSO
  39. Redford CSO Basin Evaluation Interim Final Report, March 2000
  40. Retention Basin Evaluation for the Acacia Park CSO RTB
  41. Retention Basin Evaluation for the Birmingham CSO RTB
  42. Retention Basin Evaluation for the Bloomfield Village CSO RTB
  43. River Rouge CSO
  44. Rouge River CSO Program to be Peer Reviewed
  45. Rouge River National Wet Weather Demonstration Project CSO Basin Evaluation Study
  46. Rouge River Sewer Separation Projects
  47. Rouge River Watershed Combined Sewer Overflow Case Study
  48. Rouge Stream Data Committee Interim Report
  49. Seven Mile CSO Retention Basin
  50. Surrogate CSO Detention Basins Sampling CSO Program Element
  51. Status of Performance Evaluation – CSO Basins in Oakland County, Wayne County and
    the City of Detroit
  52. Status of Performance Evaluation – CSO Basins in Oakland County, Wayne County and
    the City of Detroit
  53. Wet Weather Control Demonstration Activities in Southeast Michigan: Some Lessons Learned
  54. What Performance Monitoring Tells Us About How to Improve the Design of CSO Storage / Treatment Basins

Acacia Park CSO Basin

Project Profile, June 2004, 4 pages, Order Number: CSO-12 *

This project profile summarizes the Acacia Park CSO Basin. This CSO basin seeks to control CSO discharges and to meet applicable requirements including water quality standards.

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Birmingham CSO Basin

Project Profile, May 2004, 4 pages, Order Number: CSO-14 *

This project profile summarizes the Birmingham CSO Basin. This CSO basin seeks to control CSO discharges and to meet applicable requirements including water quality standards.

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Bloomfield Village CSO Basin

Project Profile, June 2004, 4 pages, Order Number: CSO-13 *

This project profile summarizes the Bloomfield Village CSO Basin. This CSO basin seeks to control CSO discharges and to meet applicable requirements including water quality standards.

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Combined Sewer Overflow Innovative Funding

Fayek Zabaneh and Jerry Neibert

Miscellaneous Report, April 1994, 5 pages, Order Number: VE-MM03.06 **

At the onset of the Rouge Project, representatives from Wayne County (Michigan), Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), Federal Court, and Rouge River Watershed communities developed a plan to construct detention treatment facilities at 10 locations and sewer separation projects in 6 municipalities. For the purpose of demonstration, the detention criteria for the storage and treatment facilities were varied in order to test a range of detention and treatment criteria and to identify effective combinations of design parameters for future combined sewer overflow (CSO) control facilities in the Rouge River Watershed. The municipalities and the engineering consultants for the 10 retention facilities were invited to propose "demonstration processes" to be incorporated in their designs, with the understanding that some proposed demonstrative unit processes would be funded from a separate portion of the grant extended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This memorandum presents the unit processes that each community proposed as innovative. Also presented is a suggested funding priority list. Appendices includes 42 pages of design and financial documentation.

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Criteria for Success, Goal 2 - Protection of Public Health Elimination of Raw Sewage, Evaluation of Oakland County and Wayne County CSO Facilities.

Carol Hufnagel

Project Profile, April 2001, 27 pages, Order Number: RPO-SR30 **

MDEQ published the Criteria for Success in CSO Treatment in August 1998. The Criteria for Success identifies the basis for the determination of whether Basin CSO Discharges meet the objectives of eliminating raw sewage and protecting public health (Phase II requirements). This criteria, and the performance of the Rouge CSO facilities is examined in this document. This document reflects monitoring performed at the Wayne County (Inkster, Redford, Dearborn Heights) and Oakland County (Acacia, Bloomfield Village, Birmingham) CSO facilities.

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CSO Basin Evaluation Plans - Data Collection and Transfer Guide

Carol Hufnagel and Chris Catalfio

Technical Memorandum, August 1999, 46 pages, Order Number: NPS-TM33.00 ***

This technical memorandum summarizes procedures for the transfer of CSO basin data. The Rouge Program Office (RPO) has the role of comparing data collected at different CSO control facilities, providing comparative analysis, and providing a repository for basin data collected as part of the community basin evaluation monitoring programs. In order to ensure consistency of data, general guidelines for data transfer are provided in this document. All data received by the RPO will be loaded to the program database. This requires consistency of format in order to ensure that all needed information is provided and that data is correctly recorded in the database.

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CSO Basin Monitoring and Analysis Study Plan Being Finalized

Vito P. Kaunelis

Project Profile, July 1997, 2 pages, Order Number: CSO-104 **

In its combined sewer overflow (CSO) technology evaluation, the Rouge Program Office (PRO) collected and analyzed CSO data from several existing treatment facilities. This project profile discusses this evlauation.

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CSO Basins: Getting the Most Performance from Your Pollution Control Dollar

Phil Brink, Dale Bryson, Edward Kluitenberg, Carl Johnson, and Carol Hufnagel

Technical Report, June 2005, 44 pages, Order Number: RPO-CSO-TR52 **

This report summarizes the results of the detailed evaluations of the ten combined sewer overflow (CSO) retention basins that were constructed to meet the requirements of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits.  The report addresses four main questions associated with the CSO control program as follows:

  1. How can compliance with NPDES permits and water quality standards be measured?
  2. What treatment and hydraulic processes are most effective?
  3. What is needed for operational effectiveness?
  4. What is the proper size for CSO basins to comply with regulatory requirements?

The answers to those questions are provided in the report. The methodology by which the CSO basins were evaluated in order to answer the above questions is discussed.  A number of the most significant lessons learned for each of those four questions as related to the performance of the Rouge Project CSO basins are summarized.  Conclusions on the overall success of the CSO control program are drawn.

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CSO Basins: Technology and Results, September 1999

Carol L. Hufnagel

Technical Report , September 1999,38 pages, Order Number: CSO-104 ***

Slide presentation to the Japan Institute for Waste Water Technology, September 28, 1999.

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CSO Demonstration Facilities Design Parameter Report

Razik Alsaigh

Technical Report, August 1994, 92 pages, Order Number: CSO-TR02.00 ***

This report summarizes the CSO abatement projects that the 12 communities in the Rouge River Watershed are constructing. Key design parameters for the retention treatment basins, retention treatment tunnel and sewer separation projects are identified. Estimates of costs, flows and other features of each system; and plans and diagrams showing facilities are included.

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CSOs: Two Phased Permitting for the Watershed

Kaunelis, Vyto P., and Jerry S. Neibert

Paper, October 1994, 11 pages, Order Number: WEF94-02.00 **

The Rouge River in southeast Michigan is classified as one of the most polluted rivers in the United States. Wayne County, the local communities, MDNR, U.S. District Court, and the EPA have developed a plan to demonstrate and evaluate alternative CSO control strategies in the Rouge River Watershed. A two-phased National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued to facilitate the demonstration and evaluation (Phase 1) of alternatives. In 1997, MDNR will establish criteria for addressing CSOs throughout the Rouge River Watershed. Communities will be required to construct these improvements by 2005 (Phase 2). Wayne County received an EPA grant to study the CSO treatment alternatives and provide the results to guide future CSO control in the Rouge River Watershed. The results are expected to provide valuable insight on CSO treatment alternatives throughout the nation. Figures and tables are included.

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Dearborn CSO Control Program

Project Profile, March 2006, 2 pages, Order Number: CSO-21

The City of Dearborn Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Control program seeks to control CSO discharges and to meet applicable requirements including water quality standards.

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Dearborn Heights CSO

Charlotte Nichols

Project Profile, June 2003, 4 pages, Order Number: CSO-02 *

The Dearborn Heights CSO project seeks to control CSO discharges and to protect water quality for public health.

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Dearborn Heights CSO Basin Evaluation Interim Final Report, March 2000

Wade-Trim & Associates

Technical Report, February 2005, 92 pages, Order Number: CSO-TR23.00 **

This report presents the results of the Retention Basin Evaluation for the City of Dearborn Heights Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Retention Basin. The CSO control program for the Rouge River uses a phased approach. The City of Dearborn Heights Retention Basin is part of Phase I which requires the elimination of raw sewage and the protection of public health for the basins that serve approximately 40 percent of the combined sewer area. A two-year period was established in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit to evaluate the performance of the Phase I CSO control basins. Evaluation findings would then establish the level of control needed for the remaining CSOs in the watershed. Specifically, the report explains the methodology used in the basin evaluation and includes information on the number of overflow events, effluent quality, influent flow rate, first flush profile, screenings, dewatering, disinfection, retention time, and runoff coefficient. This report also summarizes the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Phase I retention basin evaluation criteria and presents conclusions on how the Dearborn Heights basin is meeting its NPDES requirements.

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Detroit's CSO Controls

Gary Fujita

Project Profile, April 1997, 5 pages, Order Number: CSO-103 **

The Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD) is responsible for managing three combined sewer overflow (CSO) retention basins as part of the Rouge River National Wet Weather Demonstration Project. This project profile describes the CSO control program technologies and design features of the Detroit CSO facilities.

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Evaluation of In-Stream Impacts of CSO Control Facilities

Carl Johnson and Vyto Kaunelis

Project Profile, 20 pages, Order Number: Watershed 2000-02 **

Nine new facilities for storing and treating CSO discharges have been constructed and placed into operation along the Rouge River since 1997. A detailed evaluation is underway to examine the performance of the facilities and the water quality impacts of their discharges. This paper focuses on the in-stream evaluation of four criteria:
- The water quality standard for dissolved oxygen
- The physical characteristics standard
- The total residual chlorine standard
- The health of the biological community (as a surrogate for toxic materials)

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Field Survey of the Total Residual Chlorine (TRC) Plume in the Rouge River from the Hubbell-Southfield CSO Detention Basin Overflow

Carol Hufnagel

Technical Report, May 2005, 11 pages, Order Number: RPO-CSO-TR53 ***

The objective of this field survey and evaluation was to establish the extent of the total residual chlorine (TRC) plume in the ambient water of the Rouge River, downstream of the Hubbell-Southfield CSO Detention Basin (H-S basin) discharge outfall.

The field survey was conducted during a wet weather event where the H-S basin was discharging (overflowing) to the Rouge River.  The field survey measured TRC concentrations in the receiving waters at various locations along the Rouge River (both upstream and downstream of the H-S Basin discharge) and at various points in the cross-section at each location.  The basin effluent discharge was also monitored for TRC during this time.  The extent of mixing between the ambient water and the H-S basin discharge was estimated from these TRC measurements.

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Hubbell-Southfield CSO

Charlotte Nichols

Project Profile, June 2003, 4 pages, Order Number: CSO-03 *

The Hubbell-Southfield CSO project seeks to control CSO discharges and to protect water quality for public health.

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Hubbell-Southfield CSO Detention Basin Evaluation

Detroit Water and Sewer Department

Supplemental Report, November 2005, 218 pages, Order Number: RPO-CSO-SR33 *

This report presents the results of the Retention Basin Evaluation for DWSD's Hubbell-Southfield facility. The CSO control program for the Rouge River uses a phased approach. The basin is part of Phase I which requires the elimination of raw sewage and the protection of public health for the basins that serve approximately 40 percent of the combined sewer area. A two-year period was established in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit to evaluate the performance of the Phase I CSO control basins. Evaluation findings would then establish the level of control needed for the remaining CSOs in the watershed. Specifically, the report explains the methodology used in the basin evaluation and includes information on the number of overflow events, effluent quality, influent flow rate, first flush profile, screenings, dewatering, disinfection, retention time, and runoff coefficient. This report also summarizes the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Phase I retention basin evaluation criteria and presents conclusions on how the DWSD Hubbell-Southfield basin is meeting its NPDES requirements.

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Implementation of CSO Controls Based on Watershed Approach

Carol L. Hufnagel, Edward H. Kluitenberg, and Vyto P. Kaunelis

Paper, May 1998, 7 pages, Order Number: WEFSPEC98-05 **

The Rouge Project is implementing watershed planning in the Rouge River Watershed. As part of the wet weather demonstration program, CSO and stormwater quality controls are being implemented. An assessment of project prioritization and the determination of level of control is influenced by the current limiting factors in the river conditions which impact its viability as a resource. To identify limiting factors which impact river use, a group of water quality indicators and public use categories were developed to provide a measure of existing river quality. The indicators resulted in a good, fair or poor ranking of the river based on parameters of dissolved oxygen, river flow, bacteria, aquatic life and stream habitat. Use categories were used to rate representative river sites on the basis of fishing, wading/body contact and general aesthetic conditions.

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Initial CSO Findings Report

Hufnagel, Carol and Peter Klaver

Technical Memorandum, May 1997, 39 pages, Order Number: CSO-TM14.00 **

Data collected at several CSO facilities was analyzed to identify the impacts of CSO controls. In particular, the question of the importance of capture of flow volume, versus treatment of CSO discharges was examined. Several "findings" were identified. This findings included identification of first flush, the importance of optimizing interceptor capacity, the relative impacts of CSO versus stormwater loads, and the cause of CSO pollutant load reduction at a CSO basin.

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Inkster CSO Basin Evaluation Interim Final Report, March 2000

Wade-Trim & Associates

Technical Report, March 2000, 101 pages, Order Number: CSO-TR24.00 **

This report presents the results of the Retention Basin Evaluation for the City of Inkster Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Retention Basin. The CSO control program for the Rouge River uses a phased approach. The City of Inkster Retention Basin is part of Phase I which requires the elimination of raw sewage and the protection of public health for the basins that serve approximately 40 percent of the combined sewer area. A two-year period was established in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit to evaluate the performance of the Phase I CSO control basins. Evaluation findings would then establish the level of control needed for the remaining CSOs in the watershed. Specifically, the report explains the methodology used in the basin evaluation and includes information on the number of overflow events, effluent quality, influent flow rate, first flush profile, screenings, dewatering, disinfection, retention time, and runoff coefficient. This report also summarizes the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Phase I retention basin evaluation criteria and presents conclusions on how the Inkster basin is meeting its NPDES requirements.

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Inkster Retention Basin

Charlotte Nichols

Project Profile, June 2003, 4 pages, Order Number: CSO-10 *

The Inkster CSO project seeks to control CSO discharges and to protect water quality for public health.

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Integration of Wayne County CSO Controls in the Rouge River Watershed

Vito P. Kaunelis

Project Profile , October 1996, 3 pages, Order Number: CSO-102 **

The water quality in the Rouge River has beed degraded for many years by combined sewer overflows (CSOs). In October 1989, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits were issued to CSO owners requiring retention treatment facilities to eliminate raw sewage discharges into the Rouge River. This project profile describes the CSO control program technologies implemented in Phase I of the project.

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Interim CSO Report NPDES Permit No. MI 0026123

Rouge Project Combined Sewer Overflow Work Element

Supplemental Report, September 1993, 225 pages, Order Number: CSO-SR04 ***

The Interim CSO Report (ICR) is vital to the Rouge Project's success in meeting the challenge of controlling CSO pollution and minimizing incurred costs. The report defines ways to optimize operation of the existing sewer systems and CSO regulators, lists all potential sources of high pollutants, documents responses to wet weather events and information on discharges, and defines uses of the receiving waters. This report is a result of the collective efforts by combined sewer owners and operators. Its goal is to better understand the existing sewer system, its response to different wet weather events, and to identify potential high pollutant sources. The report presents the components for the existing system, potential and ongoing problems, and the needed levels of CSO control. Included are maps, tables and data.

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Meeting Report for the Rouge River Watershed CSO Technology Demonstration

Wagner, Edward, Heckler Phil, Richards Tyler, Smith Robert & Claudia Zahorcak

Supplemental Report, April 1997, 15 pages, Order Number: CSO-SR11.00 **

The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) performed a peer review of the CSO basin evaluation activities of the Rouge Program Office (RPO). The initial meeting, held in April, 1997, included a review of the basin characteristics and monitoring program as well as the goals of the study effort. This report summarizes material presented at the peer review meeting and includes recommendations of the project subcommittee to the RPO. These recommendations focus on efforts which would improve the completeness of the evaluation and would assist in transferability to other locations.

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Monitoring the Benficial Impacts of CSO Control Implementation (Reno, Nevada)

Hufnagel, Carol L. and Vyto P. Kaunelis

Paper, July 1998, 17 pages, Order Number: MonitConf98-01.00 **

The Rouge Project is a watershed-based restoration effort for the Rouge River, which is located in Southeast Michigan. The Rouge River is impacted by a number of pollutant sources, including CSOs and urban stormwater. A $420 million investment in CSO Controls is underway with the construction of eight sewer separation and 10 CSO control facilities (retention treatment basins) that are designed to achieve a significant reduction in the CSO loadings to the river under wet weather conditions. These CSO Control facilities are starting up operation between January 1997 and December 1998. These facilities were designed based on a range of sizing criteria reflecting presumptive and demonstrative approaches to CSO control. As the CSO facilities become operational, a two-year facility evaluation program is being implemented in concert with an instream monitoring evaluation.

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Monitoring and Modeling of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Impacts from CSO Facility Effluent

Edward H. Kluitenberg, Vyto P. Kaunelis, and Kurt Spieles

Paper, October 2001, 16 pages, Order Number: CSO-110 **

The Rouge River National Wet Weather Demonstration Program (Rouge Project) evaluated the performance of ten demonstration combined sewer overflow (CSO) control basins in the Rouge River watershed.Using a consensus-based approach, work groups including State personnel, CSO community representatives and consultants have reviewed the CSO basin evaluation results to date and concluded that the demonstration basins can eliminate raw sewage, protect public health and achieve water quality standards, including the dissolved oxygen standard. This demonstration approach to CSO control has been an unqualified success and resulted in a significant savings in costs compared to the presumptive approach.

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One Size Does Not Fit All: Stormwater is a Bigger Issue Since Local Communities Have No Regulatory Requirements Through CSO Controls

James W. Ridgway, Robert Tolpa, Ellen Lindquist, and Roy Schrameck

Paper, June 1996, 4 pages, Order Number: CSO-100 *

Increased budgetary pressures coupled with new congressional guidance has caused regulatory agencies to re-evaluate the ways in which they manage water resources. The Rouge Project is exploring ways to integrate the various federal, state, and local statutes and regulations to improve water quality in the Rouge River Watershed.

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Operating Experiences with Large CSO Control Facilities

Carl R. Johnson, Tony Igwe, Daniel Mitchell, & Vyto P. Kaunelis

Project Profile, June 1997, 20 pages, Order Number: WEFTEC2000-01 **

Nine facilities for storing and treating combined sewer overflows (CSO) are in operation on the Rouge River in metropolitan Detroit. These facilities provide screening, chlorination and storage of CSO, and they have a total peak flow capacity of 3,600 cfs and a storage volume of 60 million gallons. The facilities are being monitored to assess their performance and water quality benefits for future phases of CSO control in the Rouge. In the meantime, the operating data collected since June 1997 provide important information on design. This paper discusses several aspects of CSO facility operations: (1) Staff Training; (2) Overall O&M Costs (3) Use of SCADA and Mobile Staffing; (4) Pacing and Control of Hypochlorite Dosage (5) Solids Flushing Procedures; (6) Dealing with Low Influent Flow Rates; and (7) Exploring Potential New Operating Practices. The nine CSO facilities include three operated by the City of Detroit Water and Sewerage Department, three operated by the Oakland County Drain Commissioner, and three operated by the Wayne County Department of Environment. All of these facilities have been constructed as part of watershed restoration efforts on the Rouge River. These other efforts include illicit discharge elimination, storm water management, abandoned dump remediation, and habitat and recreational improvements. Overall, the operating experience with the Rouge River CSO control facilities is providing valuable information for designing future phases of CSO control on the Rouge and for communities engaged in CSO control in other watersheds. It is also helpful in identifying opportunities to enhance operational practices for CSO control.

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Operators' Forum Report

Carol Hufnagel

Technical Report, December 2004, 25 pages, Order Number: RPO-CSO-TR39 **

The Rouge National Wet Weather Demonstration Project has included the construction of nine Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Control Facilities, put into operation between 1997 and 1999. A group of hands-on operators of the CSO facilities have formed an "Operators' Forum" to provide feedback on the equipment and operational characteristics of their facilities. A summary of the various process systems at the facilities, a summary of their operation, and a listing of operators' comments are provided in this report.

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Percent Treated Analysis of Demonstration Combined Sewer Overflow Control Facilities

Kluitenberg, Edward, H., and Clinton Cantrell

Technical Memorandum, October 1994, 27 pages, Order Number: MOD-TM17.00 ***

A computer modeling analysis was conducted to determine how 11 proposed demonstration combined sewer overflow (CSO) control facilities in the Rouge River Watershed compares to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CSO Control Policy issued in April 1994. The 11 demonstration facilities comprise a variety of design features and different hydraulic design criteria for facility sizing. The analysis evaluates each facility individually rather than on a system-wide basis. Percent treated, as defined in the EPA policy, and the number of overflow events per year were calculated on an annual average basis using the TRTSTORM hydrologic mass balance model. The TRTSTORM model was developed by the Wayne County Rouge Program Office (RPO) and is similar to the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Storage, Treatment, Overflow, Runoff Model (HEC-STORM). The model uses a minimum hydraulic detention time as the sole criterion for determining whether a particular facility overflow receives the equivalent of primary clarification. Model results are presented for each facility for each of three different operating scenarios. The results are also presented for a range of values (1/2 to 3 hours) of minimum hydraulic detention time, which is the criterion used by the model to define primary clarification. A sensitivity analysis of the model results is also presented.

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Physical Characteristics of Treated Effluent from Oakland and Wayne County Demonstration CSO Facilities

Ed Kluitenberg, P.E.

Supplemental Report, November 2000, 17 pages, Order Number: CSO-SR27.00 **

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Preliminary Hydrologic Comparison of Demonstration CSO Facilities

Ed Kluitenberg of ASI

Supplemental Report, August 1999, 18 pages, Order Number: CSO-SR25.00 ***

Preliminary Hydrologic Comparison of Demonstration CSO Facilities: The purpose for this study was to compare the hydraulic performance of each basin to the design storm estimates, and to demonstrate the facilities ability to meet the criteria from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality for adequate treatment.

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Preliminary Value Engineering Report of 30 Percent Design Completion of CSO Basin Demonstration Projects for Inkster, Dearborn Heights and Redford Township

Rouge Project Value Engineering Work Element

Preliminary Value Engineering Report, July 1993, 26 pages, Order Number: VE-PVER3.00 **

A value engineering (VE) review was conducted on CSO designs at 30 percent design completion. The goal is to meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements and optimize investment. The VE review was conducted in three phases: pre-workshop, workshop, and post-workshop. Workshop attendees included senior level engineers. The pre-workshop prepared instructions for VE team members, and collected various background reports, designer's work products, cost estimates, and preliminary progress prints. The workshop itself, was conducted using the EPA-approved VE Job Plan and Methodology. The post-workshop phase included preparing this Preliminary Value Engineering Report, the decision making process, and a final report. Included in this VE preliminary report are details of all VE recommendations and design options considered during the workshop process, documentation of the decision process, and details of the cost/benefit process. Appendices include 150+ pages, containing designs, charts, and workshop worksheets.

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Puritan-Fenkell and Seven Mile CSO Detention Basins Evaluation

Detroit Water and Sewer Department

Supplemental Report, November 2004, 219 pages, Order Number: RPO-CSO-SR34 *

This report presents the results of the Retention Basin Evaluation for DWSD's Puritan-Fenkell and Seven Mile CSO facilities. The CSO control program for the Rouge River uses a phased approach. These basins are part of Phase I which requires the elimination of raw sewage and the protection of public health for the basins that serve approximately 40 percent of the combined sewer area. A two-year period was established in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit to evaluate the performance of the Phase I CSO control basins. Evaluation findings would then establish the level of control needed for the remaining CSOs in the watershed. Specifically, the report explains the methodology used in the basins evaluation and includes information on the number of overflow events, effluent quality, influent flow rate, first flush profile, screenings, dewatering, disinfection, retention time, and runoff coefficient. This report also summarizes the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Phase I retention basin evaluation criteria and presents conclusions on how the DWSD Puritan-Fenkell and Seven Mile basins are meeting its NPDES requirements.

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Puritan-Fenkell CSO Basin

Charlotte Nichols

Project Profile, December 2002, 4 pages, Order Number: CSO-04 **

The Puritan-Fenkell CSO project seeks to control CSO discharges and to protect water quality for public health.

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Redford CSO

Charlotte Nichols

Project Profile, June 2003, 4 pages, Order Number: CSO-17 *

The Redford CSO project seeks to control CSO discharges and to protect water quality for public health.

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Redford CSO Basin Evaluation Interim Final Report, March 2000

Wade-Trim & Associates

Technical Report, March 2000, 92 pages, Order Number: CSO-TR22.00 **

This report presents the results of the Retention Basin Evaluation for the City of Redford Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Retention Basin. The CSO control program for the Rouge River uses a phased approach. The City of Redford Retention Basin is part of Phase I which requires the elimination of raw sewage and the protection of public health for the basins that serve approximately 40 percent of the combined sewer area. A two-year period was established in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit to evaluate the performance of the Phase I CSO control basins. Evaluation findings would then establish the level of control needed for the remaining CSOs in the watershed. Specifically, the report explains the methodology used in the basin evaluation and includes information on the number of overflow events, effluent quality, influent flow rate, first flush profile, screenings, dewatering, disinfection, retention time, and runoff coefficient. This report also summarizes the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Phase I retention basin evaluation criteria and presents conclusions on how the Redford basin is meeting its NPDES requirements.

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Retention Basin Evaluation for the Acacia Park CSO RTB

Hubbell, Roth & Clark, Consulting Engineers

Technical Report, March 2000, 32 pages, Order Number: CSO-TR16.00 **

Retention Basin Evaluation for the Acacia Park CSO RTB: This report was compared in compliance with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) proposed schedule for the Retention Basin Evaluation for the Acacia Park CSO. The goal of this evaluation was to determine compliance are meet to MDEQ Phase two criteria in treating Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) discharges statewide. Phase two criteria summarizes the facility’s ability to meet the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) “Criteria of Success”, focus which is: 1) Estimate actual detention times at design storms for each facility, and compare basins on a common basis; 2) Determine if basin protects public health (effluent disinfection); and 3) Determine if basin eliminates raw sewage by evaluating ability to remove sanitary trash and identifiable sanitary solids.

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Retention Basin Evaluation for the Birmingham CSO RTB

Hubbell, Roth & Clark, Consulting Engineers

Technical Report, March 2000, 31 pages, Order Number: CSO-TR17.00 **

Retention Basin Evaluation for the Birmingham CSO RTB: This report was prepared in compliance with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) proposed schedule for the Retention Basin Evaluation Program for the Birmingham CSO RTB. The purpose for this evaluation was to determine compliance to Phase two (2) criteria and study the operation and performance of the demonstration RTBs. The following summarizes the facility’s ability to meet the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) “Criteria of Success”: (1) Estimate actual detention times at design storms for each facility, and compare basins on a common basis; (2) Determine if basin protects public health effluent disinfection; and (3) Determine if basin eliminates raw sewage by evaluating ability to remove sanitary trash and identifiable sanitary solids.

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Retention Basin Evaluation for the Bloomfield Village CSO RTB

Hubbell, Roth & Clark, Consulting Engineers

Technical Report, March 2000, 33 pages, Order Number: CSO-TR15.00 **

Retention Basin Evaluation for the Bloomfield Village CSO RTB: This report was prepared in compliance with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) proposed schedule for the Retention Treatment Basin (RTB) Evaluation program. The goal of this evaluation was to determine compliance to Phase two criteria, and to study the operation and performance of the demonstration of the RTBs. Phase 2 criteria summarizes the facility’s ability to meet the MDEQ “Criteria of Success”, which is to: (1) Estimate actual detention times at design storms for each facility, and compare basins on a common basis; (2) Determine if basin protects public health (effluent disinfection); and (3) Determine if basin eliminates raw sewage by evaluating ability to remove sanitary trash and identifiable sanitary solids.

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River Rouge CSO

Charlotte Nichols

Project Profile, June 2003, 3 pages, Order Number: CSO-18 *

The River Rouge CSO project seeks to control CSO discharges and to protect water quality for public health.

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Rouge River CSO Program to be Peer Reviewed

Vyto P. Kaunelis

Project Profile, July 1996, 6 pages, Order Number: CS0-101 **

The Rouge River National Wet Weather Demonstration Project address multiple water quality issues. This multi-objective program has implemented an aggressive study to assess the effectiveness of multiple control strageies in different combined sewer overflow (CSO) basins.

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Rouge River National Wet Weather Demonstration Project CSO Basin Evaluation Study

Hufnagel, Carol L., Kaunelis, Vyto P., & Suresh K. Sangal

Paper, September 1997, 11 pages, Order Number: WEFTEC97-01.00 **

The Rouge Project was initiated in 1992 to identify and implement measures to improve water quality in the Rouge River. The watershed approach included the construction of 10 CSO retention treatment basins to control a portion of the CSO discharges. An evaluation of the effectiveness of these facilities will assist in determining the design criteria for future CSO control projects. The evaluation will help to identify the relative impacts of CSO versus stormwater discharges, to further facilitate evaluation of various projects on a financial basis. Five CSO facilities are currently in operation as of July, 1997 and the remainder will be operational in late 1997 or in 1998. This paper is intended to describe the basin and supporting river monitoring studies and intended outcomes of the evaluation study.

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Rouge River Sewer Separation Projects

Charlotte Nichols

Project Profile, June 2003, 1 pages, Order Number: CSO-20 *

Several sewer separation projects were constructed to eliminate combined sewer overflows (CSO) in six communities of the Rouge Watershed. In general, the separation projects were located in communities that already had areas of both combined sewer systems and separate sewer systems. The separation projects replaced the combined systems with separated sanitary and storm lines.

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Rouge River Watershed Combined Sewer Overflow Case Study

Vyto P. Kaunelis and Edward H. Kluitenberg

Report, June 2001, 5 pages, Order Number: CSO-109 *

A case study of the Rouge River Watershed combined sewer overflow (CSO) activities. This was developed for an EPA Report to Congress on Implementation and Enforcement of the CSO Control Policy.

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Rouge Stream Data Committee Interim Report

Rouge Stream Data Committee

Technical Report, February 2001, 17 pages, Order Number: CSO-TR25.00 **

In April of 1999, the Rouge Stream Data Committee (RSDC) and the CSO Work Group were established as part of a process for analyzing data on the effectiveness of Rouge River combined sewer overflow (CSO) demonstration basins. This document is an Interim Report from the RSDC to the CSO Work Group indicating its conclusions of whether the receiving water downstream from each individual Retention/Treatment Basin (RTB) is achieving the Phase III criteria for success and, if not, to what extent the RTB discharge is contributing to the problem. The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) Phase III criteria for success state that achievement of state water quality standards (WQS) at times of discharge will be measured by the following criteria:

  • the dissolved oxygen (DO) standard;
  • the physical characteristics standard;
  • the total residual chlorine (TRC) standard; and
  • the health of the biological community (as a surrogate for toxic materials and other pollutants).

Each of these four criteria has been addressed separately by the RSDC. While the evaluation process involves a total of ten RTBs, the evaluation monitoring, and hence the RSDC evaluation, has only been initiated at six of these ten facilities.

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Status of Performance Evaluation – CSO Basins in Oakland County, Wayne County and
the City of Detroit

Phil Argiroff

Technical Report , April 2001, 2 pages, Order Number: CSO-107 ***

Report to Judge Feikens, U.S. District Court Hearing on April 19, 2001.

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Status of Performance Evaluation – CSO Basins in Oakland County, Wayne County and
the City of Detroit

Edward H. Kluitenberg

Technical Report , April 2001, 11 pages, Order Number: CSO-108 ***

Report to Judge Feikens, U.S. District Court Hearing on April 19, 2001.

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Seven Mile CSO Retention Basin

Charlotte Nichols

Project Profile, June 2003, 4 pages, Order Number: CSO-05 *

The Seven Mile CSO project seeks to control CSO discharges and to protect water quality for public health.

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Surrogate CSO Detention Basins Sampling CSO Program Element

Fayek Zabaneh

Field Sampling Plan, May 1995, 153 pages, Order Number: CSO-FSP08.00 **

The task of the Surrogate Basin Study Sampling Program is to sample and monitor flow at selected existing CSO detention basins through a number of wet weather events. This monitoring program is geared to assess the efficiency of the surrogate basins in removing CSO carried pollutants under various rainstorm events. Sampling data collected at the influent and effluent of a basin will be used to identify the performance of the basin under different influent rates resulting from different rainstorm events. This performance data will then be used to estimate the pollutant removal efficiencies of the Rouge Watershed demonstration CSO basins.

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Wet Weather Control Demonstration Activities in Southeast Michigan: Some Lessons Learned

James E. Murray, Kelly A. Cave and Dale S. Bryson

Paper, September 1998, 16 pages, Order Number: CSO-105 **

The Rouge River National Wet Weather Demonstration Project (Rouge Project) is a working example of how a systematic watershed approach to pollution management can result in cost-effective and ultimately greater and faster achievement of designated uses in a water body. The Rouge River Project has learned a great deal on what it takes to restore an urban waterway to its beneficial uses. The purpose of this document is to present some of the lessons learned to date.

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What Performance Monitoring Tells Us About How to Improve the Design of CSO Storage / Treatment Basins

Carol L. Hufnagel, Vyto P. Kaunelis, Edward H. Kluitenberg, and Jerry S. Neibert

Paper, October 1999, 8 pages, Order Number: WEFTEC99-01 **

The Wayne County Rouge Program Office collected and analyzed data from six CSO demonstration facilities in the Rouge River watershed from June 1997 through September 1998. As part of this monitoring and evaluation effort, a number of design and operational considerations were identified. These results indicate ways in which additional pollutant load can be conveyed to publicly owned treatment works (POTW) for an equivalent capital outlay. Operational experience with the facilities has also provided insight on design of facilities from an operational perspective and other measures that can improve facility performance.

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Last Updated: 10/30/12

Please address all comments and suggestions about the contents of this Web page to DOEHelp@co.wayne.mi.us.

The Rouge River National Wet Weather Demonstration Project is funded, in part, by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Grants #XP995743-01, -02, -03, -04, -05, -06, -08, -09 and C-264000-01.