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Computer Modeling


Representatives of the Rouge Project have developed numerous technical reports concerning computer modeling approaches. See also Technical Papers and Professional Presentations on Computer Modeling. To view reports that specify other topics the rouge project addresses, click on Wetlands, Watershed Management, Geographic Information Systems/Data Management, Non-point Source Pollution, Illicit Discharges/Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems, Financial and Institutional Arrangements, Modeling and Monitoring, and Combined Sewer Overflows for general information on the program.


Computer Modeling

  1. Approach to Simulating the Water Quantity and Quality in the Rouge River
  2. Determination of Impervious Area and Directly Connected Impervious Area
  3. Development and Preliminary Simulations of the Rouge River Water Quality Models
  4. Main Rouge Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Status/Observations
  5. Middle 1 Subwatershed SWMM Modeling for Subwatershed Management Plan Development
  6. Middle 3 Subwatershed SWMM Modeling for Subwatershed Management Plan Development
  7. Model Review and Assessment
  8. Modeling Subwatershed/Subarea Delineations
  9. Pebble Creek Storm Water Modeling and Priority Improvements
  10. Percent Treated Analysis of Demonstration Combined Sewer Overflow Control Facilities
  11. Preliminary Pollution Loading Projections for Rouge River Watershed and Interim Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Plan
  12. Selection of Stormwater Pollutant Loading Factors
  13. Upper 2 Subwatershed SWMM Modeling for Subwatershed Management Plan Development
  14. User's Manual: Watershed Management Model (WMM) for Windows
  15. WMM for Windows Information and Install Files

Additional Modeling Documents

The Rouge Project has generated numerous additional technical memoranda related to Computer Modeling. See the Modeling contact person under Contact Us for a complete list of technical memoranda on this topic.

Monitoring Performed to Support Computer Modeling

  1. 1995 Sediment Oxygen Demand Studies
  2. 1995 Streambank Erosion Reconnaissance Survey
  3. 1996 Sediment Oxygen Demand Studies
  4. 1998 Baseline Data Summary for the Rouge River Watershed
  5. Impoundment Limnological Studies Field Sampling Plan
  6. Modeling Special Studies 1994-1995: Impoundment Limnological Report
  7. Modeling Special Studies: 1994-1995 Time-of-Travel and Stream and Dam Reaeration Studies
  8. Rouge River Reconnaissance Survey
  9. Rouge River Watershed Sediment Reconnaissance Survey
  10. Rouge River Watershed Sediment Reconnaissance Survey QAPP
  11. Sediment Oxygen Demand Studies Field Sampling Plan
  12. Stream and Dam Reaeration Studies Field Sampling Plan
  13. Stream Time-of-Travel Studies Field Sampling Plan

Approach to Simulating the Water Quantity and Quality in the Rouge River

Gary Mercer

Technical Memorandum, March 1995, 34 pages, Order Number: RPO-MOD-TM26 ***

A three-tier computer model of the Rouge River Watershed was developed for simulating the pollutant sources and water quality in the Rouge River. The small watershed model, Tier 1, simulates the rainfall-runoff-pollutant load generation processes, representative of a small watershed being monitored within the Rouge River Watershed. The subarea model, Tier 2, simulates the flows and pollutant loads generated in the watershed. The watershed-wide model, Tier 3, simulates the rainfall-runoff-pollutant load generation processes for the entire watershed, as well as the water quality response of the river. Details of the Tier 3 model are presented in this report. The Tier 3 model has three components: RUNOFF, TRANSPORT and the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP). The RUNOFF block of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) simulates the flows and pollutant loads from subareas. The flows simulated by the RUNOFF model are input to the TRANSPORT block of the SWMM model which simulates the hydraulic response of the Rouge River from precipitation events. Pollutant loads from the RUNOFF model are input to the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) which simulates the water quality response of the river during wet and dry weather conditions. The methods, data requirements and processes simulated are presented for each of the Tier 3 model components. Integration of the models into one comprehensive model system using the Linked Watershed Model (LWM) is also discussed.

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Determination of Impervious Area and Directly Connected Impervious Area

Edward H. Kluitenberg

Supplemental Report, August 1994, 28 pages, Order Number: RPO-MOD-SR35 **

Impervious area and directly connected impervious area were determined for use in the watershed models. The determinations were made by examining over 300 sample areas using aerial photographs, and were supplemented by field investigations when necessary. This memorandum summarizes the need for the data, the methods used, and the results of the analysis for each of eleven Rouge River subwatersheds and for the watershed as a whole.

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Development and Preliminary Simulations of the Rouge River Water Quality Models

Richard A. Wagner

Technical Report, November 1995, 158 pages, Order Number: RPO-WMO1A-TR01.01 ***

This report describes a water quality model developed for the Rouge River watershed. The water quality model includes a Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) RUNOFF model used for stormwater pollutant generation; a SWMM RUNOFF/TRANSPORT model used for generation of pollutants from combined sewer overflows; and a Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) receiving water model. The report describes model development, preliminary simulations, a sensitivity analysis and simulation of preliminary alternatives.

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Main Rouge Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Status/Observations

Edward H. Kluitenberg and Kurt Spieles

Miscellaneous Memorandum, January 2004, 64 pages, Order Number: SR-36 ***

This memorandum summarizes dissolved oxygen modeling of the Main Rouge River for a major wet weather event in which treated effluent overflowed to the river form all three Oakland County demonstration CSO basins. The memorandum discusses the CBOD mass balance for the event, model results, and sensitivity analysis results. This memorandum is also included as an appendix in the February, 2001 Rouge Stream Data Committee Interim Report (RPO-TR25).

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Middle 1 Subwatershed SWMM Modeling for Subwatershed Management Plan Development

Mark S. Pribak

Miscellaneous Memorandum, November 1997, 14 pages, Order Number: SR-37 ***

This memorandum describes flow impacts of watershed management planning alternatives in the Middle 1 subwatershed as simulated using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Each simulation is described and results are presented. The simulations include baseline conditions (1994), Phase I CSO controls, uncontrolled future baseline conditions (future land use), and future baseline conditions with standard practices (100 year basins). The results were used in developing the Middle 1 Subwatershed Management Study.

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Middle 3 Subwatershed SWMM Modeling for Subwatershed Management Plan Development

Mark S. Pribak

Miscellaneous Memorandum, November 1997, 12 pages, Order Number: SR-38 ***

This memorandum describes flow impacts of watershed management planning alternatives in the Middle 3 subwatershed as simulated using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Each simulation is described and results are presented. The simulations include baseline conditions (1994); Phase I CSO controls; uncontrolled future conditions (future land use) in the upstream Middle 1 subwatershed; Phase II CSO controls; and construction of extended dry detention basins. The results were used in developing the Management Study for the Middle 3 Subwatershed (Draft).

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Model Review and Assessment

Rouge Project Modeling Program Element

Technical Memorandum, July 1994, 35 pages, Order Number: MOD-TM04.04 ***

Computer models are used to simulate and predict wet weather pollution control measures and management practices on water quality in the Rouge River. The report details a review of previous and ongoing studies conducted within the Rouge River Watershed, technical aspects of modeling the river, and critical reviews of state-of-the-art models. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) (RUNOFF), SWMM (TRANSPORT), and Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) are recommended by the project modeling team.

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Modeling Subwatershed/Subarea Delineations

Edward H. Kluitenberg

Miscellaneous Memorandum, May 1994, 51 pages, Order Number: SR-39 **

This memorandum summarizes subwatershed delineations and subarea delineations performed for the Rouge River watershed. These delineations were performed as part of the watershed model development. The memorandum describes methods used; data sources; and results, including the size of each subarea and a GIS map showing the watershed delineation and all delineated subwatersheds and subareas.

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Pebble Creek Storm Water Modeling and Priority Improvements

Ryan Wingard, Ed Kluitenberg, Gary Mercer, and Charlie Bristol

Technical Report, December 2001, 68 pages, Order Number: RPO-TR41 **

The Charter Township of West Bloomfield and the City of Farmington Hills have developed a Stormwater Master Drainage Plan for a pilot area, the Pebble Creek subwatershed, which encompasses areas within both communities. This project results in a plan that focuses on flow control and best management activities that incorporate water quality improvements. This work lays the foundation for each community to continue in their watershed planning efforts in the remainder of each community.

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Percent Treated Analysis of Demonstration Combined Sewer Overflow Control Facilities

Kluitenberg, Edward, H., and Clinton Cantrell

Technical Memorandum, October 1994, 27 pages, Order Number: MOD-TM17.00 ***

A computer modeling analysis was conducted to determine how 11 proposed demonstration combined sewer overflow (CSO) control facilities in the Rouge River Watershed compares to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CSO Control Policy issued in April 1994. The 11 demonstration facilities comprise a variety of design features and different hydraulic design criteria for facility sizing. The analysis evaluates each facility individually rather than on a system-wide basis. Percent treated, as defined in the EPA policy, and the number of overflow events per year were calculated on an annual average basis using the TRTSTORM hydrologic mass balance model. The TRTSTORM model was developed by the Wayne County Rouge Program Office (RPO) and is similar to the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Storage, Treatment, Overflow, Runoff Model (HEC-STORM). The model uses a minimum hydraulic detention time as the sole criterion for determining whether a particular facility overflow receives the equivalent of primary clarification. Model results are presented for each facility for each of three different operating scenarios. The results are also presented for a range of values (1/2 to 3 hours) of minimum hydraulic detention time, which is the criterion used by the model to define primary clarification. A sensitivity analysis of the model results is also presented.

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Preliminary Pollution Loading Projections for Rouge River Watershed and Interim Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Plan

Kelly Cave, Eric Harold, and Tom Quasebarth

Technical Report, February 1996, 177 pages, Order Number: NPS-TR07.00 **

This report details the preliminary pollution loading projections obtained from collected data which is used to assess the load reductions that can be achieved under various control strategies within the Rouge River Watershed. The report compares land use based pollutant loadings with projected base flow, point source, and combined sewer overflow (CSO) loadings, summarizes current source and treatment pollution control strategies for use in the Rouge River Watershed, assesses the expected impact of selected storm water and CSO pollution control scenarios on reducing loadings to the Rouge River, and presents an interim NPS control plan for the Rouge River Watershed.

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Selection of Stormwater Pollutant Loading Factors

Kelly Cave, Tom Quasebarth, and Eric Harold

Technical Memorandum, October 1994, 66 pages, Order Number: MOD-TM34.00 ***

This technical memorandum summarizes and assesses the available data from previous local, regional, and national storm water monitoring studies and presents land use-specific storm water pollutant loading factors for use in the simulation of storm water pollution loads to the Rouge River. The primary objectives are to: (1) identify storm water related pollutants that may impact water quality in the watershed; (2) describe the methodology for determining appropriate storm water pollutant loading factors, based on storm even mean concentrations (EMCs), for simulating the water quality in the Rouge River; and (3) present recommended storm water EMC loading factors based on statistical analysis of local, regional, and national monitoring databases. Storm Water pollutant loading factors are presented for 12 constituents and 10 land use categories based on the statistical analysis. The loading factors will be applied in the Rouge River Watershed models to estimate storm water pollution loads to the river under existing and future land use conditions and to determine the effect of best management practices (BMPs) on pollution reduction. This analysis will be used in the simulation of water quality of the Rouge River in response to wet weather events.

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Upper 2 Subwatershed SWMM Modeling for Subwatershed Management Plan Development

Mark S. Pribak

Miscellaneous Memorandum, November 1997, 19 pages, Order Number: SR-40 ***

This memorandum describes flow impacts of watershed management planning alternatives in the Upper 2 subwatershed as simulated using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Each simulation is described and results are presented. The simulations include baseline conditions (1994); future baseline conditions (future land use); Phase II CSO controls; Phase II CSO controls plus 16 dry extended detention basins; and Phase II CSO controls plus 7 dry extended detention basins. The results were used in developing the Management Study for the Bell Branch and Tarabusi Creek Subwatershed (Draft).

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User's Manual: Watershed Management Model (WMM) for Windows

Christine Rohrer

Technical Memorandum, December 1998, 95 pages, Order Number: NPS-TM27.00 (WMM) **

The Watershed Management Model (WMM) for Windows is the latest version of the WMM originally developed by CDM using Lotus 123. WMM was developed specifically to estimate annual/seasonal nonpoint pollutant loads from direct runoff on watersheds and subbasins and was modified to address watershed management needs. WMM estimates loads based on local hydrology and non-point loading factors (EMCs) which relate land use patterns and percent imperviouness in a watershed to "per-acre" pollutant loadings. Options are also available for calculating CSO and point source loads. WMM for Windows provides a more robust and user- friendly interface than the previous version of WMM and functions as a stand alone application requiring no additional software.

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WMM for Windows Information and Install Files

Christine Rohrer

Data, July 2000, Order Number: COM-WMM **

The Watershed Management Model (WMM) for Windows is the latest version of the WMM originally developed by CDM using Lotus 123. WMM was developed specifically to estimate annual/seasonal nonpoint pollutant loads from direct runoff on watersheds and subbasins and was modified to address watershed management needs. WMM estimates loads based on local hydrology and non-point loading factors (EMCs) which relate land use patterns and percent imperviousness in a watershed to per-acre pollutant loadings. Options are also available for calculating CSO and point source loads. WMM for Windows provides a more robust and user friendly interface than the previous version of WMM and functions as a stand alone application requiring no additional software.

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  • COM-WMM (Application - HTML file)

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1995 Sediment Oxygen Demand Studies

Joseph Rathbun, Gary Mercer, and Sarina Aryan

Technical Memorandum, July 1996, 41 pages, Order Number: MOD-TM08.00 **

In situ sediment oxygen demand (SOD) measurements were made at 14 stations on all four branches of the Rouge River between June and September 1995. Sediments at most of the stations were sandy, and exhibited low SOD (<1.5 g O2/m2/day). Silty sediments were usually restricted to small local deposits, except in the Middle Branch impoundments and some areas of the lower Main Branch.

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1995 Streambank Erosion Reconnaissance Survey

Joseph Rathbun, Gary Mercer, and Thomas Johnson

Technical Memorandum, August 1996, 36 pages, Order Number: WM-TM09.00 **

A reconnaissance survey of the magnitude and extent of streambank erosion on the four major branches of the Rouge River and selected tributaries was conducted in December 1995. A procedure is described for a more quantitative evaluation of the contribution of streambank erosion to the total suspened solids load of the river.

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1996 Sediment Oxygen Demand Studies

Joseph E. Rathbun, Sarina G. Aryan & Gary W. Mercer

Technical Memorandum, February 1997, 12 pages, Order Number: MOD-TM16.00 **

This report summarizes in situ sediment oxygen demand (SOD) measurements made at eight stations on the Main Branch of the Rouge River between August and October 1996.

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1998 Baseline Data Summary for the Rouge River Watershed

Chris Catalfio, Joseph Rathbun, Edward Kluitenberg, and Sarina Aryan

Technical Memorandum, October 1999, 267 pages, Order Number: RPO-WMGT-TM34 **

This report summarizes the baseline environmental conditions in the Rouge River Watershed observed in 1998. The 1998 program was a continuation of the 1997 program which focused on the collection of water quality data at selected monitoring sites to support the Phase 1 Combined Sewer Overflow basin performance monitoring and reporting. The program in 1998 involved continuous monitoring of water quality, flow, level, rainfall, and the collection of water quality samples at selected locations in the Rouge River and within the watershed. A network of 21 instream sites was used to monitor levels of flow, dissolved oxygen, and water chemistry during wet weather events. These sites were located both upstream and downstream of selected Phase 1 basins. The site located downstream of the basins included continuous monitoring for flow and dissolved oxygen levels. The instream water quality monitoring for CSO basin evaluation has been designed to contribute to the historical data set for the Rouge River Watershed.

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Impoundment Limnological Studies Field Sampling Plan

Joseph Rathbun

Field Sampling Plan, May 1995, 24 pages, Order Number: MOD-FSP06.00 ***

The FSP provides a detailed description of the schedule (Fall 1994 through Summer 1995) and procedures of the impoundment limnological studies. Methods, sampling sites (Newburgh, Walled, Meadowbrook, and Phoenix Lakes), and data handling processes are described. SOPs are included. Samples for nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, total phosphorous, and orthophosphorous), chlorophyll, plankton, total suspended solids are collected, and in situ water transparency, dissolved oxygen and temperature measurements are made once a month at each impoundment. This includes diurnal dissolved oxygen profiles taken at sunrise and after midday. Macrophyte biomass was measured once in the summer of 1995. This information is used as input data for the water quality models, and the field sampling plan is used both for staff training and for reference.

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Modeling Special Studies 1994-1995: Impoundment Limnological Report

Joseph E. Rathbun, Sarina G. Aryan, Gary W. Mercer

Technical Memorandum, July 1996, 94 pages, Order Number: MOD-TM10.00 **

This report summarizes the limnological analyses and macrophyte distribution and abundance measurements performed at four lakes along the Middle Branch of the Rouge River, between September/October 1994 and August 1995.

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Modeling Special Studies: 1994-1995 Time-of-Travel and Stream and Dam Reaeration Studies

Joseph Rathbun, Gary Mercer, and Sarina Aryan

Technical Memorandum, July 1996, 23 pages, Order Number: MOD-TM07.00 **

A time-of-travel dye study (using Rhodamine WT dye) and a stream reaeration study (using the propane gas desorption technique) were performed on the Lower Branch of the Rouge River in August 1995. The measured time-of-travel and stream reaeration coefficient (3.89 day at 20 C) for the study reach (Hannon Road to John Daly Road) were longer and lower, respectively, than predicted by formulas in a USGS protocol and by the U.S. EPA's SWMM model. This discrepancy is probably due to the fact that both the USGS formulas and the model assume that river slope is constant over the length of a particular river segment, whereas the river reach studied is actually a series of alternating long, low-gradient reaches and short, high-gradient reaches. Based on this data, it is recommended that additional reaeration measurements be performed on four river reaches: two locations on the Main Branch; one location on the Upper Branch; and one location on the Middle Branch. Dam reaeration at Meadowbrook Lake, Phoenix Lake, Wilcox Lake and Newburgh Lake in 1994-1995 was always measurable, although the dissolved oxygen concentrations did not always increase. Passage over the dams increased the water oxygen content in 50% of the cases, by 0.7 to 3.4 mg/L. In the other cases, dam ?deaeration? was observed; DO concentration decreased, by 0.2 to 4.2 mg/L. Dam deaeration was observed in summer 1995, whenever DO concentrations in the impoundment waters were supersaturated. DO supersaturation was due to high photosynthetic oxygen production in these eutrophic lakes.

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Rouge River Reconnaissance Survey

Louis C. Regenmorter

Technical Report, October 1994, 40 pages, Order Number: MOD-TR01.00 **

A reconnaissance survey was conducted along 90 miles of the Rouge River. Its purpose was to record the locations of sewer outfalls, characterize sediments, and provide a general description of the river's flow hydraulics, water quality, and environment. The findings of the survey conducted on the Main Rouge River, Lower Rouge, Middle Rouge, and Upper Rouge are presented in the report. A map that identifies the locations of many of the described features is also included. The report includes the locations and sources (combined, storm, sanitary, unknown) of the 630 outfalls found. The general makeup of the sediments (sand, silt, clay, cobblestones) are described, and identified on the field maps. Locations where the sediments contain high organic contents are specifically identified for future sampling activities. Additional characteristics that are reported include: flow rates, hydraulics, and stream geometry at selected locations; visual observations of water clarity, impacted water quality, and aesthetic appearance; and general descriptions of land use and the flora and fauna. A black and white 44" x 36" River Reconnaissance Survey map is included.

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Rouge River Watershed Sediment Reconnaissance Survey

V. Elliott Smith, Laura Lang Huellmantel, Joseph E. Rathbun, Colleen Hughes, Paul M. Zimmerman, and John Michalski

Technical Memorandum, July 1995, 21 pages, Order Number: RPO-MOD-TM38.00 ***

A reconnaissance survey was conducted throughout most of the Rouge River to characterize sediment quality from October 15 to November 11, 1993. Sediment grab samples were collected from 182 locations at approximately one kilometer (0.6 mile) intervals. Priority locations for sampling were instream deposits of soft, oily silt where contaminants were more likely to accumulate. All samples were analyzed for contaminants by quantitative screening methods: metals and other elements by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF); total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by enzyme immunoassays. Total organic carbon (TOC) by ignition and all results were corrected to sediment dry weight. Elements quantified by XRF analysis were determined for antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, titanium and zinc. Results indicated that metals concentrations were usually low, although six metals (antimony, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc) occurred at concentrations which exceeded the toxicity-based guidelines of Long and Morgan (1990). This indicates only potential metals toxicity, which is not yet confirmed. Generally, higher concentration metals were found in the downstream reaches of each branch, and especially in the Main Rouge. Total PCB concentrations in Rouge sediments were generally low. However, a concentration of 12 mg/kg was found upstream of Newburgh Lake on the Middle Rouge, where PCB levels exceeding 50 mg/kg have been found in an earlier survey. Elevated PCB levels also occurred near two groups of landfills along the Lower Rouge, and near groups of CSO and stormwater outfalls on the Main Rouge. Total PAH concentrations were also generally low but measurable in most samples at levels of 1 to 27 mg/kg. About half exceeded the low-toxicity guideline (4 mg/kg). The more elevated PAH levels occurred near certain outfall groups and landfill sites, especially along the Main and Lower Rouge Branches. Charts, maps. Appendices contain 124 pages.

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Rouge River Watershed Sediment Reconnaissance Survey QAPP

Joseph Rathbun

Supplemental Report, September 1993, 45 pages, Order Number: RPO-MOD-QAPP-03.03 **

This addendum to the Main Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) specifically addresses the quality assurance requirements of the Rouge River watershed sediment quality survey.

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Sediment Oxygen Demand Studies Field Sampling Plan

Joseph Rathbun

Field Sampling Plan, May 1995, 22 pages, Order Number: MOD-FSP07.00 ***

The FSP provides a detailed description of the schedule (Fall 1994 through Fall 1995) and procedures of the sediment oxygen demand (SOD) studies. Methods, sampling sites, and data handling processes are described, and SOPs are included. SOD is thought to be a major source of oxygen depletion in the river. It is measured using EPA-designed SOD chambers, which enclose a known volume of water and area of sediment, in which oxygen depletion is monitored over time. SOD coefficients are calculated from the data. This information is used as input data for the water quality models; the FSP is also used for staff training and reference.

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Stream and Dam Reaeration Studies Field Sampling Plan

Joseph E. Rathbun

Field Sampling Plan, May 1995, 18 pages, Order Number: MOD-FSP05.00 ***

The FSP provides a detailed description of the schedule (Fall 1994 through Fall 1995) and procedures of the stream and dam reaeration studies. Methods, sampling sites, and data handling processes are described, and standard operating procedures (SOPs) are included. Stream reaeration is estimated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) propane injection/fluorometric dye study technique, and dam reaeration is determined by measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration above and below the dams on four impoundments. Data is used for the Rouge Project water transport and quality models.

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Stream Time-of-Travel Studies Field Sampling Plan

Kurt Spieles

Field Sampling Plan, August 2001, 38 pages, Order Number: RPO-WMGT-FSP23.00 **

This field sampling plan provides a detailed description of field sampling efforts for wet weather time-of-travel studies. The goals of the time-of-travel studies include: determining time-of-travel during wet weather events for two selected reaches of the Rouge River; and assessing the validity of time-of-travel in the Main Rouge River DO Model during CSO basin overflow events. Methods, sites, duration, magnitude and sample handling of the monitoring effort for the proposed time-of-travel studies are described. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) ensure that the sampling is of acceptable quality and will yield information and data that are useable and technically defensible. This Field Sampling Plan (FSP) is used for both staff training and reference.

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Last Updated: 5/18/02

Please address all comments and suggestions about the contents of this Web page to rougeweb@co.wayne.mi.us.

The Rouge River National Wet Weather Demonstration Project is funded, in part, by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Grants #XP995743-01, -02, -03, -04, -05, -06, -08 and C-264000-01.